C: Degrees Centigrade or Celsius.
C or Croning Process: See Shell Molding.
Calcium Silicide: An alloy of calcium, silicon and iron used for deoxidation of steel.
Calcium Silicon: An alloy of calcium, silicon and iron containing 28-35% Ca, 60-65% Si, and 6% Fe, max., used as a deoxidizer and degasser for steel
and cast-iron; sometimes called calcium silicide.
Camber: Deviation from edge straightness usually referring to the greatest deviation of side edge from a straight line.
Carbide: A compound of carbon with one or more metallic elements.
Carbon: Element occurring as the diamond and as graphite, and forming a constituent of coal, petroleum and asphalt; carbon is also obtained artificially as lampblack, bone black, etc., as charcoal and as coke. Carbon reduces many metals from their oxides when heated with the latter, and small amounts of it greatly affect the properties of iron. Though classed as a nonmetallic, metallurgically, like boron, it is treated as a metal.
Carbon, Combined: The carbon in iron or steel which is combined with other elements and therefore is not in the free state as graphite or as temper carbon.
Carbon Dioxide Process (Silicate Process, Schmidt-Philipp Process): A process for hardening molds or cores in which carbon dioxide gas is blown
through dry clayfree silica sand to precipitate silica in the form of a gel from the sodium silicate binder.
Carbon Sand: A molding aggregate consisting principally of carbon (graphite) granules.
Carbonitriding (Nicarbing): A process in which a ferrous alloy is case hardened by first being heated in a gaseous atmosphere of such composition
that the alloy absorbs carbon and nitrogen simultaneously, and then being cooled at a rate that will produce desired properties.
Case: The surface layer of an iron-base alloy which has been suitably altered in composition and can be made substantially harder than the interior or
core by heat treatment.
Case Hardening: A process of hardening a ferrous alloy so that surface layer or case is made substantially harder than the interior or core. Typical case
hardening processes are carburizing and quenching, cyaniding, carbonitriding, nitriding, induction hardening and flame hardening.
Cast Weld: Welding one casting to another to form a complete unit.
Cementite: A compound of iron and carbon known as iron carbide which has the approximate chemical structure (Fe:,C) and is characterized by an
orthorhombic crystal structure.
Charpy Test: A pendulum type of impact test in which a specimen supported at both ends as a simple beam is broken by the impact of the swinging
pendulum. The energy absorbed in breaking the specimen, as determined by the decreased rise of the pendulum, is a measure of the impact strength
of the metal. See Izod Test.
Chill: A metal insert in molds or cores at the surface of a casting or within the mold to hasten solidification of heavy sections and cause the casting to cool
at a uniform rate.
Coalescence: 1. The growth of particles of a dispersed phase by solution and reprecipitation, 2. The growth of grains by absorption of adjacent
Cobalt: Blue-white metal, melting at 1492 C, used in very hard alloys such as stellite, and a binder in carbide cutting tools.
Cobalt-60: A radioactive isotope used in medical and industrial radiography.
Cocoon Process: A method of protecting metal parts by spraying on a cover of plastic filaments.
Code: In EDP, a system of symbols and their use in representing rules for handling the flow or processing of information.
Code Holes: The information holes in perforated tape, as opposed to feed or sprocket holes.
Coefficient of Expansion: Unit increase in size resulting from a unit increase in temperature; measured in inches per inch per degree of temperature.
Coercive Force: The magnetizing force that must be applied in the direction opposite to that of the previous magnetizing force in order to remove residual
magnetism; thus, an indicator of the strength of magnetically hard materials.
Cohesion: The force by which like particles are held together. It varies with different metals and depends upon hot or cold working as well as upon
molecular arrangement due to heat treatment.
Coining: 1. A process of straightening and sizing castings by die pressing, 2. A process for shaping metal.
Coke: A porous, gray infusible product resulting from the dry distillation of bituminous coal, petroleum or coal tar pitch, which drives off most of the
volatile matter. Used as a fuel in cupola melting.
Coke Bed: First layer of coke placed in the cupola. Also the coke as the foundation in constructing a large mold in a flask or pit.
Coke, Beehive: Coke produced from a bituminous coal by the beehive process where heat for the coking process comes from a partial combustion of
the coke. Generally characterized by an elongated stringy structure.
Coke Breeze: Fines from coke screenings, used in blacking mixes after grinding; also briquetted for cupola use.
Coke, By-Product: Coke produced from bituminous coal in airtight coke ovens where heat for coking process is externally applied. Generally more uniform
in size than beehive coke, and usually ball or cube shape.
Coke Furnace: Type Of pot or crucible furnace using coke as the fuel.
Coke, Petroleum: Residue left from the distillation of petroleum crudes, used as a carbon raiser.
Coke Porosity: The Percentage volume of cell space in coke.
Cold Box Process: A two-part organic resin binder system mixed in conventional mixers and blown into shell or solid core shapes at room temperature. A vapor mixed with air is blown into the core, permitting instant setting and immediate pouring of metal around it.
Cold Chamber Machine: A diecasting machine where the metal chamber and plunger are not immersed in hot metal.
Cold Chamber, Club Sandwich, Two Faced, Three-Piece Die: A diecasting die in which two different pieces are cast in two widely separated cavities.
Cold Cracking: Cracks in cold or nearly cold metal due to excessive internal stress caused by contraction. Often brought about when the mold is too hard
or casting is of unsuitable design.
Cold Lap: Wrinkled markings on the surface of an ingot or casting from incipient freezing of the surface and too low a casting temperature.
Cold Setting Process: Any of several systems for bonding mold or core aggregates by means of organic binders, relying upon the use of catalysts rather
than heat for polymerization (setting).
Cold-Setting Binders: Term used to describe any binder that will harden the core sufficiently at room temperature so core can be removed from its box
without distortion; commonly used in reference to oil-oxygen type binders.
Cold Short: A characteristic of metals that are brittle at ordinary or low temperatures.
Cold Shot: Small globule of metal embedded in but not entirely fused with the casting.
Cold Shut: Casting defect caused by imperfect fusing or discontinuity of molten metal coming together from opposite directions in a mold, or due to
folding of the surface. It may have the appearance of a crack or seam with smooth, rounded edges.
Cold Work: Plastic deformation of a metal at such temperatures and rates that substantial increases occur in the strength and hardness.
Collapsible Sprue: A sprue pattern of flexible material, or of spring-tube design, used in squeeze-molding of plated patterns, and incorporating a pouring cup.
Collate: 1. To merge items from two or more similarly sequenced files into one sequenced file, 2. to compare one thing critically with another
of the same kind.
Collimator: A device for confining the elements of a beam of radiation within an assigned solid angle.
Colloids, Colloidal Material: Finely divided material less than 0.5 micron (0.00005 in.) in size, such as albumin, glue, starch, gelatin and bentonite.
Colloidal Clay: Finely divided clay of montmorillonite, kaolinite or illite class; prepared for foundry purposes as in sand bonding.
Color Etching: A micro-etch resulting from the formation of a thin film of a definite compound of the metal.
Colorimetric Analysis: Determining the amount of an element in a solution by measuring the intrinsic color.
Columnar Structure: A coarse structure of parallel columns of grains, which is caused by highly directional solidification resulting from sharp
Combination Die (Multiple-Cavity Die): In die casting, a die with two or more different cavities for different castings.
Combined Carbon: Carbon in iron and steel which is combined chemically with other elements; not in the free state as graphitic or temper carbon.
Combined Water: That water in mineral matter which is chemically combined and driven off only at temperatures above 230 F (110 C).
Combustion: Chemical change as a result of the combination of the combustible constituents of the fuel with oxygen, producing heat.
Combustion Chamber: Space in furnace where combustion of gaseous products from fuel takes place.
Combustion Efficiency: The amount of heat usefully available divided by the maximum amount which can be liberated by combustion; usually
expressed in percentage.
Comfort Zone (Average): The range of effective temperatures over which the majority (50% or more) of adults feel comfortable.
Command: In EDP, a pulse, signal or set of signals initiating one step in the performance of a computerized operation.
Common Language: In EDP, a machine-sensible information representation common to a related group of data processing machines.
Composite Construction: See Cast Weld (Welding a steel casting to a rolled or forged steel object or to another casting.)
Compression Test: Imposing a dead load on a small cylindrical test piece to determine compressive strength, expressed in pounds per sq. in.
Compressive Strength-(Yield): The maximum stress that a metal, subjected to compression, can withstand without a predefined amount of deformation (ultimate), the maximum stress that a brittle material can withstand without fracture when subjected to compression, compressive
strength, sand-maximum stress in compression which a sand specimen is able to withstand without failure.
Compressor: Device for providing gas under pressure. Usually connotes high pressures and not so high volume.
Concalenate: In EDP, to unite in a series, link in a chain.
Condensing Rings: A special form of chill used for cast iron to produce a dense but graphite structure.
Conductivity (Thermal): The quantity of heat that flows through a material measured in heat units per unit time per unit of cross-sectioned area per unit
of length, (electrical) the quantity of electricity that is transferred through a material of known cross-section and length.
Connor Gate (Runner) (Lip Feeder): A runner in which the feed block overlaps the casting by 1/16 in.
Constant Intensity Pyrometer: Use of a comparison lamp filament’s glow to estimate metal temperature.
Constantan: An alloy of nickel and copper used in thermocouples.
Constituent: A micrographically distinguishable part of an alloy or mixture.
Consumer’s Risk: The risk the consumer runs of accepting lots of quality p2.
Contact Cement: Patternmaking bonding technique, in which liquid bonding agent is painted on both surfaces to be joined and allowed to dry.
These dry surfaces placed in contact adhere firmly.
Contact Printing (ink Print): A method of recording details of a macroetched structure. See Sulfur Prints.
Contamination: 1. Radioactive deposition of radioactive material in any place where it is not desired, and particularly in any place where its presence
may be harmful. The harm may be in vitiating the validity of an experiment or a procedure, or in actually being a source of danger to personnel,
2. presence of small percentages of deleterious elements is an alloy adversely affecting the alloy’s mechanical properties and/or casting soundness.
Continuous Annealing Furnace: Furnace in which castings are annealed or heat treated by passing through different zones at constant temperatures.
Continuous Desulfurization: A process for removing sulfur from molten ferrous alloys on a continuous basis.
Continuous Phase: In alloys containing more than one phase, the phase that forms the matrix or background in which the other phase or phases are
present as isolated units.
Continuous Tapping: A furnace or holding ladle that is made to discharge molten metal continuously during normal operation.
Contraction: The volume change occurring in metals (except antimony and bismuth) and alloys on solidification and cooling to room temperature.
Contraction Cracks: Cracks formed by restriction of the metal while contracting in the mold; may occur just after solidification (called a hot tear)
or a short time after the casting has been removed from the mold.
Contraction Rule: See Shrinkage, Patternmaker’s.
Control: In EDP, those parts of the computer that affect the carrying out of instructions in proper sequence the interpretation of each instruction and the application of the proper signals.
Controlled Area: A defined area in which the occupational exposure of personnel to radiation or to radioactive material is under the supervision of an
individual in charge of radiation protection.
Controlled Atmosphere: Any gas or mixture of gases that prevents or retards oxidation and decarburization.
Controlled Cooling: See Cooling, Controlled.
Convection: The motion resulting in a fluid from the differences in density and the action of gravity. In heat transmission this meaning has been extended
to include both forced and natural motion or circulation.
Converter: A furnace in which a gas, usually air, is blown through the molten bath or crude metal for the purpose of oxidizing impurities.
Conveyor: A mechanical apparatus for carrying or transporting materials from place to place. Types include apron, belt, chain, gravity, roller, monorail,
overhead, pneumatic, vibrating, etc.
Conveyor Belt: A continuously moving belt used in an automated or semiautomated foundry to move materials from one station to another.
Conveyor, Pallet: A materials-handling device that holds one or more molds and transports them from the molding station through pouring to shakeout.
Conveyor, Pneumatic Tube: An air-tube means of moving materials from one place to another, primarily orders, light metal samples and sand and other
finely divided materials, as bentonite.
Conveyor, Roller: A line of conveyance in an automated or semiautomated foundry which employs a series of steel rollers for moving objects.
Conveyor Screw: Rotary worm-type blade used to move materials in automated core and mold making and other continuous sand-mixing operations.
Conveyor, Slat: A materials-handling device built on a continuous belt of metal slats that moves granular materials and castings throughout a foundry.
Conveyor, Vibratory: A materials-handling device used usually with shakeout operations, to help clean sand from the castings as they are moved from one
place to another in the foundry and as a feeding device to regulate materials flow. Operations with vibrational energy.
Cooler: The largest of three water coolers surrounding the cinder notch of a blast furnace.
Cooling, Controlled: A process of cooling from an elevated temperature in a predetermined manner used to avoid hardening, cracking or internal
damage, or to produce a desired microstructure. This cooling usually follows the final hot forming operation.
Cooling Curve: A curve showing the relationship between time and temperature during the cooling of a metal sample. Since most phase changes involve
evolution or absorption of heat, there may be abrupt changes in the slope of the curve.
Cooling Fin: See Cracking Strip.
Cooling Stresses: Stresses developed by uneven contraction or external constraint of metal during cooling.
Cope: Upper or topmost section of a flask, mold or pattern.
Cope, False: Temporary cope used only in forming the parting and therefore not a part of the finished mold.
Coping Out: The extension of sand of the cope downward into the drag, where it takes an impression of a pattern.
Copper: For foundry applications, copper is meant to include all alloys containing 98% or more of copper. Used for high conductivity castings. Melting point 1083 C (1981.4 F).
Copper, Electrolytic: Copper produced by the electrolysis method.
Corbel: One or more projecting courses of brick each projecting beyond the course below.
Core: A preformed sand aggregate inserted in a mold to shape the interior or that part of a casting which cannot be shaped by the pattern.
Core Assembly: Putting together a complex core made of a number of sections.
Core-Baking Dielectric: Heating cores to baking temperatures by means of high-frequency dielectric equipment; particularly adapted to thermosetting
resin core binders.
Core Bar: A piece of iron or steel to strengthen a core.
Core Barrel: Pipe-shaped device upon which a cylindrical core is formed.
Core Binder: Any material used to hold the grains of core sand together.
Core, Blind: A core in which the core print in the mold is obscured by an overhang, other cores, etc. Also called blind set core.
Core Blow: A gas pocket in a casting adjacent to a cored cavity caused by entrapping gases from the core.
Core Box, Combination: Core box and core driers from the same pattern. One half is used as a half core box and as a core drier.
Core Branch: Part of a core assembly.
Core Breaker: A machine for crushing cores or for removing cores from castings.
Core Cavity: The interior form of a core box that gives shape to the core. Also, the cavity produced in a casting by use of a core.
Core Collapsibility: The rate of disintegration of the core at elevated temperature.
Core Compound: A commercial mixture used as binder in core sand.
Core Crab: An iron framework embedded in a large core to stiffen it, and for convenience in handling.
Core Density: 1. Permeability of a core or 2. weight per unit volume.
Core Driers: Supports used to hold cores in shape while being baked; constructed from metals or sand f conventional baking, or from plastic material
for us with dielectric core-baking equipment.
Core Extruder: A special shell-core-making machine that produces a continuous length of cores, usually o cylindrical cross-section.
Core Filler: Material used in place of sand in the interiors of large cores-coke, cinder, sawdust, etc. usually added to aid collapsibility.
Core Fin: A casting defect, a depression in the casting caused by a fin on the core that was not remove before the core was set, or by paste that has
oozed out from between the joints.
Core Frame: Frame of skeleton construction used in stead of a complete core box in forming intermediate and large cores.
Core Grinder: Machine for grinding a taper on the en of a cylindrical core or to grind a core to a specified dimension, usually flat face.
Core Gum: A pitchy material used as a core binder.
Core Hardness: The ability of a core to resist scratching or abrasion.
Core Irons: An iron, steel bar, wire, or other shape used within a core for strengthening it in the green sand state to prevent distortion.
Core Jig: A device for setting core assemblies outside of the mold and r)placing the whole assembly in the mold.
Core Knockout Machine: A mechanical device for re moving cores from castings.
Coreless Induction Furnace: See Furnace, Induction, Line-Frequency, 180-cycle or High Frequency.
Core Lightener: A core material of any size and shape used to lighten pattern castings and match plates.
Coremaker: A craftsman skilled in the production of cores for foundry use.
Core Maker: A core seat so shaped or arranged that the core will register correctly in the mold; also termed locator, indicator, register, telltale.
Core Making Machine: A device to make cores.
Core Mud: A daubling mixture used to correct defect in cores.
Core Raise: A casting defect caused by the core moving towards the cope surface of a mold, resulting in variation in wall thickness.
Core Refractiveness: The ability of a core to resist breakdown when exposed to heat.
Coreroom: Department of the foundry in which core are made.
Corer, Sag: A decrease in the height of a core, usually accompanied by an increase in width, as a result of in sufficient green strength of the sand to
support its ow weight.
Core Sand: Sand for making cores to which a binding material has been added to obtain good cohesion an porosity after drying. Usually low in clays.
Core Setting: Placing cores in a jig or mold.
Core Setting Jig: A device used to help set a core into the mold.
Core Shift: A variation from specified dimensions o a cored section due to a change in position of the cored or misalignment of cores in assembling.
Core Shooter: A device using low air pressure to fluid ize the sand mix which is released quickly in such a way as to force it into a core box.
Core Spindle: A shaft on which a core barrel is rotated in making cylindrical cores.
Core Sprayer: A device for spraying a coating o cores.
Core Strainer (Strainer tub): Baked sand or a refractory disc with uniform size holes through its thickness used to control the discharge of metal from
pouring basins into sprues or to regulate the flow of metal in gating systems of molds; also to prevent entrance o dross or slag into the mold cavity.
Core Stickle Template (Sweep): Device of wood or metal to give shape to certain types of cores or molds.
Core Truck: Truck or carriage used for transporting cores.
Core Vents: 1. A wax product, round or oval in form, used to form the vent passage in a core. Also refers to a metal screen or slotted piece used to form
the vent passage in the core box employed in a core blowing machine, 2. holes made in the core for escape of gas.
Core Wires or Rolls: See Core Iron.
Coring: Variable composition in solid-solution dendrites; the center of the dendrite is richer in one element, as shown by the pertinent solidus-liquidus
lines in a phase diagram.
Coring Up: Placement of cores, chills and chaplets in mold halves before closing the mold.
Corner Cut: In EDP, a corner removed from a card to facilitate orientation.
Cornerslick (Inside and Outside Corners): A molder’s tool used for repairing and sticking the sand in molds. Used primarily on dry sand and loam.
Corrective Effective Temperature Chart: A chart on which information can be plotted resulting in an adjusted temperature reading more indicative of
Corrosion: 1. Gradual chemical or electrochemical attack on a metal by atmosphere, moisture or other agents, 2. chemical attack of furnace linings by
gases, slags, ashes or other fluxes occurring in various melting practices.
Corrosion Index: A number expressing the maximum depth in mils to which corrosion would penetrate in one year on the basis of a linear extrapolation
of the penetration occurring during the lifetime of a given test or service.
Cosiettizing: Producing a black, rust-resisting surface on iron and steel by boiling for some hours in water containing phosphoric acid and iron filings.
Corundum: Native alumina, or aluminum oxide Al2O3 ocurring as rhombohedral crystals and also in masses and variously colored grains. Applied
specifically to nontransparent kinds used as abrasives. It is the hardest mineral except the diamond. Corundum and its artificial counterparts are abrasives
especially suited to the grinding of metals.
Cottrell Process: An electrostatic method of removing solid particles from gases.
Counting Rate Meter: A device which gives a continuous indication of the average rate of ionizing events.
Couple: Two dissimilar conductors in electrical contact. An electromotive force is created under proper electrolytic influences or during heating.
Courses: Alternate layers of material in a pattern, or brickwork.
Cover: A protective blanket laid on a melt to exclude oxidizing atmosphere and in the case of magnesium to prevent its igniting. Neutral covers simply
protect metal from atmosphere; reacting covers contain an agent such as a deoxidizer.
Cover Core: A core set in place during the ramming of a mold to cover and complete a cavity partly formed by the withdrawal of a loose part of the pattern.
Also used to form part or all of the cope surface of the mold cavity. A core placed over another core to create a flat parting line.
Cover Half: In die casting, the stationary half of the die.
Crab: See Core Crab.
Crack, Hot Tear: A rupture occurring in a casting a or just below the solidifying temperature by a pulling apart of the soft metal, caused by thermal
Cracking Strip: A fin of metal molded on the surface of a casting to prevent cracking.
Crane: A machine for lifting heavy weights; may be hand or power operated. Types include electric, gantry, jib, monorail, etc.
Crane, Gantry: A bridge carrying a traveling crane and supported by a pair of trestles running on parallel tracks.
Crane, Jib: A crane suspended from a jib.
Crane, Mobile: A crane supported on structure that rolls on wheels; may be moved manually or by its own power.
Crane, Wall Jib: A jib crane mounted on a wall rather than on an overhead beam.
Craze Crack (Crazing): Minute crack on ceramic or refractory surface caused by thermal or mechanical shock.
Crazing (Worming): A defect found in pack-hardened tools, manifested in surface markings.
Creep: The flow or plastic deformation of metals held for long periods of time at stresses lower than the normal yield strength. The effect is particularly
important if the temperature of stressing is in the vicinity of the recrystallization temperature of the metal.
Creep Limit: The maximum stress that will result in creep at a rate lower than an assigned rate.
Crib: Network of cast iron used to support the cope when no cope flask is used.
Critical Cooling Rate: The minimum rate of continuous cooling just enough to prevent undesired transformations.
Critical Strain: In forgings and rollings, the amount of cold work below which no recrystallization will take place on annealing and above which coarse
Cromodizing: A rust-proofing process for steel.
Cronak Process: A method of producing a film of chromium salts on zinc surfaces to inhibit corrosion.
Croning Process (C Process, Cronizing): A casting process named after its German developer Johannes Croning. It is a precision production process
using a phenol formaldehyde resin binder. See Shelf Molding.
Cross: Device used for lifting and binding large loam molds.
Crossbar: Wood or metal bar placed in a flask to give greater anchorage to the sand than is afforded by its four walls.
Cross Gate: See Runner,
Cross Section: A view of the interior of an object that is represented as being cut in two, the cut surface presenting the cross section of the object.
Crown: Furnace roof, especially when domeshaped; highest point of an arch.
CRT: Cathode ray tube, used in EDP display devices.
Crucible: A ceramic pot or receptacle made of materials such as graphite or silicon carbide, with relatively high thermal conductivity, bonded with clay or
carbon, and used in melting metals; sometimes applied to pots made of cast iron, steel, or wrought steel. The name derives from the cross (Crux) with
which ancient alchemists adorned it.
Crucible Furnace: A furnace fired with coke, oil, gas or electricity in which metals are melted in a refractory crucible.
Crucible Wash: A refractory material applied to the inside of a crucible to help protect the fining from attack by the molten metal.
Crucible Zone: The zone in the cupola between the bottom and the tuyere.
Crush: Buckling or breaking of a section of mold due to incorrect register when closing. Also, an indentation in the casting surface due to displacement
of sand in the mold when the mold was closed.
Crush Strip or Bead: An indentation in the parting line of a pattern plate which ensures that cope and drag have good contact by producing a ridge of
sand which crushes against the other surface of the mold or core.
Crystal: A physically homogeneous solid in which the atoms, ions or molecules are arranged in a three-dimensional repetitive pattern.
Crystal Analysis: Determination of crystal structure.
Crystal Lattice: The way atoms are arranged in a crystal. Spacewise, there are only 14 different lattices.
Crystalline Fracture: Fracture of a brittle metal, showing definite crystal faces in the fractured surface.
Crystallization: The formation of crystals by the atoms assuming definite positions in the crystal lattice, as when a metal solidifies.
Curing Time (No Bake): That period of time needed before a sand mass reaches maximum hardness.
Cut: Defect in a casting resulting from erosion of the sand by metal flowing over the mold or cored surface.
Cutoff Machines, Abrasives: A device using a thin abrasive wheel rotart at high speed to cut off gates and risers from castings, or in similar operations.
Cutter, Gate: A scoop or other form for cutting gates in the mold.
Cutting Wheel: (Elastic Slitting Wheel) … The plastic discs impregnated with an abrasive for cutting ceramics and metals. Used on abrasive cutoff machines.
Cyclone (Centrifugal Collector): In air pollution control, a controlled descending vortex created to spiral objectionable gases and dust to the bottom of a
Cyclonic Scrubber: In air pollution control, radial liquid (usually water) sprays introduced into cyclones to facilitate collection of particles.
Cyclotron: A device for accelerating charged particles to high energies by means of an alternating electric field between electrodes placed in a constant